Hair ice, also known as ice wool or frost beard, is a type of ice that forms on dead wood and takes the shape of fine, silky hair. It is somewhat uncommon, and has been reported mostly at latitudes between 45–55 °N in broad leaf forests. Hair ice forms on moist, rotting wood from broad leaf trees when temperatures are slightly under 0 °C (32 °F) and the air is humid. Each of the smooth, silky hairs has a diameter of about 0.02 mm (0.0008 in) and a length of up to 20 cm (8 in). The hairs are brittle, but take the shape of curls and waves. They can maintain their shape for hours and sometimes days. A piece of wood that produces hair ice once may continue to produce it over several years.
In the year 2015, German and Swiss scientists identified the fungus Exidiopsis effusa as key to the formation of hair ice. The fungus was found on every hair ice sample examined by the researchers, and disabling the fungus with fungicide or hot water prevented hair ice formation.
Hin Sam Wan (Three Whale Rock), is a 75 million-year-old rock formation at the top of the mountains in Thailand. It earned its name because from the right perspective, it bears a remarkable resemblance to a family of whales.
Thimmamma Marrimanu in India is world’s largest banyan tree. It appears to be an entire forest, with Its canopy covers 19,107 m2 (4.721 acres). In 1989 it was recorded as the largest tree specimen in the world in the Guinness Book of World Records . According to a local myth, the tree is named after Thimmamma, a woman who committed sati (suicide by throwing herself on the funeral pyre of her husband’s dead body). The tree is said to have originated from one of the poles used in the funeral pyre. Thimmamma Marrimanu contains a small temple at its base and is still worshiped to this day by the local community.
The Tower is an astounding geologic feature that protrudes out of the prairie surrounding the Black Hills. It is considered sacred by Northern Plains Indians and indigenous people. Hundreds of parallel cracks make it one of the finest crack climbing areas in North America. Devils Tower was the first United State s national monument, established in 1906, by President Theodore Roosevelt. The name Devil’s Tower originated in 1875 during an expedition led by Colonel Richard Irving Dodge, when his interpreter reportedly misinterpreted a native name to mean “Bad God’s Tower”. Native American names for the monolith include “Bear’s House” and “Bear’s Lodge”.
Fairy circles are circular patches of land barren of plants, varying between 2 and 15 meter in diameter, often encircled by a ring of stimulated growth of grass. Until 2014, the phenomenon was only known to occur in the arid grasslands of the Namib desert. In that year, ecologists were alerted to similar rings of vegetation outside of Africa, in a part of the Pilbara in Western Australia.
The cause of fairy circles has long been a puzzle and the investigation has proved challenging. One favored theory is that the distinct vegetation patterns are a population-level consequence of competition for scarce water, as the plants “organise” themselves to maximise access to scarce resources. The circular barren patches capture water which then flows to the outer edges of the ring. More water available increases biomass and roots which leads to the soil becoming looser. The less dense soil allows more water to penetrate and feed the vegetation, creating a feedback loop supporting the plants at the edge of the circle.
Originally invented by the people of the region of Kitayama, the method was used to solve the problem of shortage of seedlings. Daisugi is a Japanese forestry technique where specially planted cedar trees are pruned heavily. like giant bonsai, to produce “shoots” that become perfectly uniform, straight and completely knot free lumber. The shoots are carefully and gently pruned by hand every two years leaving only the top boughs, allowing them to grow straight. Harvesting takes 20 years and old “tree stock” can grow up to a hundred shoots at a time.
Onekotan is an uninhabited volcanic island located near the northern end of the Kuril Islands along the Pacific “Ring of Fire.” Onekotan consists of two stratovolcanos connected by a relatively flat isthmus.
Krenitsyn is the prominent caldera at the southern end of the island. The mountain rises from a depth of from 600 to 900 meters, and contains a deep central caldera lake with a diameter of 7 kilometers, called Tao-Rusyr Caldera. The central peak of this “island within the island” is actually the highest point on Onekotan Island
Nemo is the peak to the north. It has two nested subsidiary calderas, with the cone of Nemo Peak rising in the southwest end of the youngest caldera and a crescent-shaped crater lake, named Lake Chernoye, partially filling the northeast part.
White Desert National Park in Egypt, is the site of large white chalk rock formations, created through erosion by occasional sandstorm in the area. Some of them have developed nicknames over the years. The most famous are called “chicken and mushroom”, “camel” and “whale”, among other things. Arguably, the best way to experience the wonders of the White Desert is to camp overnight because these sculptural formations look most impressive at sunrise or sunset.
Apis dorsata, the giant honey bee, is a honey bee of South and Southeast Asia, found mainly in forested areas. Since their nests are fairly exposed and accessible to predators, built in exposed places far off the ground, these giant honeybees exhibit strong and aggressive defense strategies. A method that Apis dorsata utilizes against wasps is referred to as “shimmering” behavior or defense waving. Bees in the outer layer thrust their abdomens 90° in an upward direction and shake them in a synchronous way. This may be accompanied by stroking of the wings. The signal is transmitted to nearby workers that also adopt the posture, thus creating a visible — and audible — “ripple” effect across the face of the comb, in an almost identical manner to an audience wave at a crowded stadium. These wave-like patterns repel wasps that get too close to the nests of these bees and serve to confuse the wasp. In turn, the wasp cannot fixate on capturing one bee or getting food from the bees’ nest, so the wasp will seek to find easier prey and leave this nest alone.
info source: wikipedia