Window tax was a property tax based on the number of windows in a house. It was a significant social, cultural, and architectural force in England, France, and Ireland during the 18th and 19th centuries. To avoid the tax, some houses from the period can be seen to have bricked-up window-spaces
In 1696 in England, William III introduced the infamous Window tax, taxing houses based on the number of windows they had. Houses with more than ten windows had to pay a steep ten shillings. Many houses bricked up their windows to reduce the number which caused health problems. After 156 years, it was repealed in 1851 following campaigners branded it a “tax on health” and “tax on light and air”.