Monoliths are geological features consisting of a single massive stone or rock that were formed in prehistoric times by violent eruptions, tectonic shifts or erosion. Here is a list of some of the largest and most recognizable monoliths on the planet.
Uluru, Northern Territory, Australia
Uluru is often referred to as the biggest monolith, but that is generally avoided by geologists. While the surrounding rocks were eroded, the rock survived as sandstone strata making up the surviving Uluru ‘monolith’.
The Tower is an astounding geologic feature that protrudes out of the prairie surrounding the Black Hills. It is considered sacred by Northern Plains Indians and indigenous people. Hundreds of parallel cracks make it one of the finest crack climbing areas in North America.
Stone Mountain, Georgia,US
A spectacular granite monolith more than 5 miles (8 km) in circumference at its base. The summit of the mountain can be reached by a walk-up trail on the west side of the mountain or by the Skyride aerial tram.
Sigiriya, Sri Lanka
A massive column of rock nearly 200 metres (660 ft) high. According to the ancient Sri Lankan chronicle the Culavamsa, this site was selected by King Kasyapa (477 – 495 CE) for his new capital. He built his palace on the top of this rock and decorated its sides with colourful frescoes. On a small plateau about halfway up the side of this rock he built a gateway in the form of an enormous lion. The capital and the royal palace was abandoned after the king’s death. It was used as a Buddhist monastery until the 14th century.
El Peñon de Guatape, Colombia
The Rock of Guatapé is a grantic rock remnant that has resisted weathering and erosion. On the northern face of the stone there are painted large white letters “G” and an incomplete “U”. Guatapé and El Peñol had long disputed ownership of the rock, and the residents of Guatapé decided to settle the matter by painting the town’s name on the rock in huge white letters. It did not take long for the residents of El Peñol to notice the work, and a large mob was assembled to stop it. Only the “G” and part of the “U” were completed. There are 740 steps to the uppermost step atop the building at the summit, a fact reinforced by yellow numbers also seen in the climb up the stairs.
Zuma Rock, Nigeria
The large monolith rises spectacularly immediately north of Nigeria’s capital Abuja 725 metres (2,379 ft) above its surroundings. It was used for a defensive retreat by the Gbagyi people against invading neighbouring tribes during inter tribal warring.
By Jeff Attaway – http://www.flickr.com/photos/attawayjl/3329179458/Uploaded by MrPanyGoff, CC BY 2.0, Link
Sugarloaf Mountain, Brasil
The mountain is one of several monolithic granite and quartz mountains situated in Rio de Janeiro at the mouth of Guanabara Bay on a peninsula that juts out into the Atlantic Ocean. Rising 396 m (1,299 ft) above the harbor, its name is said to refer to its resemblance to the traditional shape of concentrated refined loaf sugar. It is known worldwide for its cable-way and panoramic views of the city.
El Capitan is a vertical rock formation in Yosemite National Park near its western end. The granite monolith extends about 3,000 feet (900 m) from base to summit along its tallest face and is one of the world’s favorite challenges for rock climbers and BASE jumpers.
Peña de Bernal, Mexico
Peña de Bernal is a 433 m (1,421 ft) tall monolith located in San Sebastián Bernal, a small town in the Mexican state of Querétaro. Many people perform a pilgrimage to the small chapel located at the highest point accessible through hiking.